What dendritic cell can do? cells (DC) are named after their exploratory, dendritic or dendritic shape and are responsible for triggering an adaptive immune response, so they can act as a protective dog for the immune system. Paul Langerhans first described DC in human skin in 1868. But they are considered skin nerve cells. DCs are bone marrow leukocytes (BM), the most effective type of antigen presenting cells. A combination of various growth factors (such as macrophage granulocyte colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and Flt3 ligand) was used for in vitro culture from OM and blood.
DCs are specifically used to capture and process antigens and convert proteins into peptides present in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules recognized by T cells. Myeloid and plasmacytoid DCs although all DCs can capture, process and present antigens to neonatal T cells, DC subtypes have different markers, their location, migration pathways, detailed immune functions and their infection or The dependence of inflammatory stimuli is also different. The adaptive immune response, phenotype and DC function play an extremely important role in the initiation of T helper 1 (Th1), Th2 and Th17 tolerance, memory and polarization. What dendritic cell can do?
DCs linking innate and adaptive immunity:
What dendritic cell can do? Because DCs have many cytoplasmic processes, they have a large surface area and can be in close contact with a large number of surrounding cells, ET cells, natural killer cells, neutrophils, epithelial cells, etc. For example, according to experiments, there is only one kind of mature DC precursor (additional example) DC precursor migrates from OM through the bloodstream to almost all non-lymphoid tissues in immature state (iDC), and through endocytosis, giant cells Drinking and phagocytosis.
They can extend their processes through dense epithelial connections. During the invasion of pathogens, the resident NIR recognizes the invader through pattern recognition receptors (such as TLR), captures the antigen, and quickly leaves the tissue. They crawl through cells, pass through the endothelium of lymphatic vessels, and migrate to draining lymph nodes (LU) in response to a variety of chemokines. Like CCL19 and CCL21, DC undergoes phenotypic and functional maturation during migration from surrounding tissues.
In particular, they stop capturing the antigen while increasing the expression of costimulatory molecules such as CD80 and CD86 and the chemokine receptor CCR7. They secrete pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α and IL-12.After DCs reach the subcapsular sinus LN, they enter the T cell area, where interdigital DCs actively participate in the presentation of antigens to T cells. What dendritic cell can do?
The use of DC’s immune regulation function can provide an excellent prospect for the prevention of cancer, autoimmune diseases and the prevention of transplant rejection. Through DC operation, they can become the most effective adjuvant to enhance the host’s immune defense capabilities. It has been shown that tumors can inhibit DC by secreting anti-inflammatory cytokines (such as IL-10), thereby mediating the formation of suppressor T cells from local DCs.
In order to destroy these mechanisms, DCs can be produced in vitro, loaded with tumor antigens, and then re-introduced into DCs to improve the host’s immunity to tumor cells. CK vaccines prepared in this way are generally safe with minimal side effects, and have been found to be useful and effective in certain patients. It has been described and is being studied in clinical trials. What dendritic cell can do?
Natural killer cells:
Natural killer cells (NK) are lymphocytes from the same family as T cells and B cells of the same parent. However, as cells of the innate immune system, NK cells are classified as Class I innate lymphocytes (ILC) and can quickly respond to various pathological problems. What dendritic cell can do?
NK cells are known for killing virus-infected cells and detecting and controlling early symptoms. In addition to preventing diseases, specialized NK cells are also found in the placenta, which can play an important role in NK cells, firstly because they can kill tumor cells without triggering or prior activation (as opposed to cytotoxic T cells) Need to start with antigen-presenting cells). They are named after this “natural” death. The cells secrete cytokines, such as IFNα. TNFα and TNFα act on other immune cells, such as macrophages and dendritic cells, to enhance the immune response. What dendritic cell can do?
During the patrol, NK cells are in constant contact with other cells. NK cells kill these cells based on the balance of signals from the activation and inhibitory receptors on the surface of NK cells. The activated receptor recognizes molecules expressed on the surface of cancer and infected cells and turns on NK cells.The inhibitory receptor serves as a control for NK cell death. Most normal healthy cells express MHC I receptors, marking these cells as “their own.” Inhibitory receptors on the surface of NK cells recognize MHC I analogs, thereby shutting down NK cancer cells.
Infected cells usually lose their MHC I, making them vulnerable to the death of NK cells. After deciding to destroy NK cells, cytotoxic granules containing perforin and granzyme are secreted, leading to the lysis of NK cells. Natural killer cells-rice. 1. The receptor genes of the NK and MHC I cell inhibitors they identified vary from person to person. The versions (or alleles) of these genes that a person carries are related to their ability to resist HIV infection and the risk of certain autoimmune diseases. What dendritic cell can do?
The types of NK cells also change with age and are affected by chronic viral infections such as cytomegalovirus (CMV). Because of its ability to destroy tumor cells and NK cells. They are attractive targets for cancer immunotherapy.Some therapeutic monoclonal antibodies rely on the destruction of NK cells. Researchers are also developing methods to activate small molecules or cytokines to activate NK cells, and are even testing live genetically modified NK cells as a therapy.